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When deploying a Django application, you often use a
that contains a list of the application’s dependencies. During deployment, your
provisioning system will
pip install all of those to make sure that your
application runs as desired.
The format of a typical
requirements.txt files isn’t unlike the following
django==1.3.1 psycopg2==2.4.4 Fabric==1.3.3 ...
pip will go to the Python Package Index (PyPI) and look for
that package there.
Unfortunately, PyPI has been known to be down or slow at times; and you want your deployments to be as smooth as possible.
Instead of depending on PyPI for a production application, you can host the packages that your application needs yourself. It’s actually surpringly easy to do. Your existing deployment strategy can easily be modified to remove the dependency.
First, we will create a freeze of your requirements. This will look into your environment and figure out which version of which package you will need for the production environment.
$ pip freeze -r requirements.txt > freeze.txt
Once you have the list of packages, you can tell
pip to download all the
packages into a directory without installing them.
$ pip install -d pypi -r freeze.txt
This will download all packages from
freeze.txt into the
The next step is to upload all these packages to a publicly accessible server
that can serve static files. This can anything from S3, Cloudfiles or even
Github pages. I like to place all of these packages into a
directory. You will also need a simple index file to go with your packages. All
the index file needs to is provide a list of HTML links to those packages. The
index will be used by
pip to locate the package source distribution.
I have put together a simple Fabric task that will read the contents of the
pypi/ directory and create this index file for you.
def make_index(): result = local('ls pypi', capture=True) packages = result.split('\n') html = "<html><head></head><body>%s</body></html>" links =  for package in packages: link = '<a href="packages/%s">%s</a>' % (package, package) links.append(link) links = '\n'.join(links) f = open('index.html', 'w') f.write(html % links) f.close()
Upload the index file to your server and you’re ready to deploy. Instead of the usual:
$ pip install -r requirements.txt
You will run this:
$ pip install -r freeze.txt -f http://yourPypiHost.com/index.html --no-index
This will completely ignore PyPI and only use your index when locating packages. This way your deploys will be faster and more reliable.
This article was first published on February 4, 2012. As you can see, there are no comments. I invite you to email me with your comments, criticisms, and other suggestions. Even better, write your own article as a response. Blogging is awesome.